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Table 1 Enzymes involved in lignan biosynthetic pathway of I. indigotica

From: Isatis indigotica: from (ethno) botany, biochemistry to synthetic biology

Name Enzyme Gene ID Substrate Product Reference
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL1 Phenylalanine trans-Cinnamic acid Ma et al., 2016
PAL2
Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase C4H GU014562 Cinnamic acid 4-Coumaric acid Hu et al., 2015
4-Coumarate CoA ligase 4CL GQ872418 Di et al., 2012
4CL2 KC430622 4-Coumaroyl acid; caffeic acid; ferulic acid; sinapic acid 4-Coumaroyl CoA;caffeoyl CoA et al. Zhang et al., 2016a
4CL3 KC430623 Caffeic acid; ferulic acid Caffeoyl CoA; Feruloyl CoA Zhang et al., 2016b
Coumaric acid 3-hydroxylase C3H JF826963 4-Coumaroyl CoA Caffeoyl CoA Chen et al., 2015
Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase CCoAOMT DQ115904 Caffeoyl CoA Feruloyl CoA Li et al., 2021
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase CCR GQ872418 Cinnamoyl CoA esters Cinnamaldehydes Hu et al., 2011
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase CAD GU937874 Cinnamyl aldehydes Cinnamyl alcohols Hu, 2010
Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/ quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase HCT p-Coumaroyl CoA; caffeoyl shikimate p-Coumaroyl shikimate; caffeoyl CoA Dong et al., 2015
Dirigent protein DIR1, DIR2 Coniferyl alcohol Pinoresinol Li et al., 2014; Chen, 2018
Pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase PLR1 JF264893 Pinoresinol; lariciresinol Lariciresinol; secoisolariciresinol Xiao et al., 2015; Xiao et al., 2021
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT71B5a MW051594 Pinoresinol; lariciresinol; secoisolariciresinol; matairesnol Glycosylation products Chen et al., 2021b
UGT71B5b MW051595
  1. -; not available